Personality psychology is a discipline that focuses on the empirical assessment and analysis of individual differences in social behavior (Funder, 1986). Several personality theories have been developed since Freud’s (1961) environmental-based theory of the id, ego, and superego. However, trait-based theories of personality assume that genetic predispositions shape the stable traits that make up the central components of an individual’s personality (Allport, 1937; McLeod, 2014).
Also referred to as psychometrics, the study of trait-based personality has produced a number of models, many of which include some variation and measure of key traits including: introversion, extroversion, neuroticism, emotional stability (Eysenck, 1966), warmth, intellect, aggressiveness, liveliness, dutifulness, social assertiveness, sensitivity, abstractness, anxiety, open-mindedness, independence (Cattell, 1965), authoritarianism, and ethnocentrism (Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, & Sanford, 1950). Of the body of personality research, the Five Factor Model of Personality is one of the most cited models as researchers throughout the field have come to a consensus regarding the validity and reliability of the model (Antonioni, 1998; Costa & McCrae, 1992; Goldberg, 1990; Goldberg et al., 2006; McCrae & John, 1992; Peabody and Goldberg, 1989).
-From "The Impact of Need for Affect and Personality on Relationship Conflict in Groups" - Melanie Gallo, PhD